Province in the east of Austria. Many Gypsies were settled there by Empress Maria Theresa. During the 1930s their economic position as casual farm workers was becoming difficult, and friction arose with local Austrians competing for work. They were among the first to be interned by the Nazis after Germany annexed Austria in 1938. Most perished in Auschwitz, Buchenwald, Chelmno, or Ravensbrück. There is a small surviving population, but few of the children speak Romani. A cultural center was set up in recent years. Attempts are being made with the help of the University of Graz to preserve the dialect (known as Roman) as a written language.

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